21 September 2017 - پنج شنبه 30 شهريور 1396
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جستجوی پیشرفته
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صاحب امتیاز:
موسسه پژوهشی علوم و فناوری رنگ و پوشش
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پروفسور زهرا رنجبر
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دکتر شهره روحانی
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دکتر مریم عطائی فرد
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مروری بر مواد پوشش‌دهنده (استحکام‌بخش‌های سطحی) در حفاظت سنگ‌های تاریخی و فرهنگی

نشریه: سال ششم- شماره دوم- تابستان 1395 - مقاله 5   صفحات :  43 تا 64



کد مقاله:
JSCW-21-09-2015-10236

مولفین:
عاطفه شکفته: دانشگاه هنر اصفهان - دانشکده مرمت
حسین احمدی: دانشگاه هنر اصفهان - دانشکده مرمت
مهدی یزدی: دانشگاه اصفهان - دانشکده علوم


چکیده مقاله:

آثار سنگی و محوطه‌های سنگی با قدمت چند هزارساله از جمله میراث جهانی تخت جمشید، پاسارگاد و کنگاور همواره در معرض تخریب هستند و در صورت عدم رسیدگی علمی و سنجیده در اسرع وقت امکان از هم‌پاشیدگی برخی از آن‌ها محتمل است. یکی از شاخه‌های حفاظت آثار تاریخی که در راستای صیانت و حفظ آنها از طریق مداخله بسیار اهمیت دارد، استحکام‌بخشی است. استحکام‌بخشی توسط موادی که عموماً در صنعت به عنوان پوشش‌دهنده شناخته شده‌اند، سبب افزایش مقاومت‌های مکانیکی سطحی می‌شود. درمان‌های استحکام‌بخشی به دلیل عدم برگشت‌پذیری خود و احتمال ایجاد اثرات نا‌مطلوب، از مخاطره آمیزترین اقدامات حفاظتی در حوزه آثار تاریخی هستند. بدین ترتیب، شناخت و انتخاب صحیح ماده در بقای عمر اثر بسیار اهمیت دارد، زیرا در صورت عدم شناخت ماده و اثرات جانبی آن، گاه ممکن است اثرات سوء آن بیش از مزایایش باشد. از این رو، با توجه به نقصان وجود اطلاعات کافی به زبان فارسی در زمینه انواع مواد مورد استفاده‌ی حوزه حفاظت سنگ برای مرمت‌كنندگان آثار تاریخی و همچنین عدم دانش کافی در مورد سازوکار عمل استحکام‌بخش‌ها و مزایا و معایب آن‌ها، ضروری است تا موادی که در حال حاضر در زمینه استحکام‌بخشی سنگ‌های تاریخی مورد استفاده و مقبول هستند را از طرق مطالعات مروری، معرفی کرده و عملکرد و خصوصیات آنها شرح داده شوند تا بدین ترتیب این پژوهش در راهبرد اهداف حفاظتی در حوزه آثار تاریخی کمک‌رسان باشد. استحکام‌بخش‌ها از لحاظ ماهیت شیمیایی به سه دسته آلی، معدنی و آلی- معدنی تقسیم‌بندی می‌شوند. استحکام‌بخش‌های آلی عموماً برای تمامی سنگ‌ها با جنسیت‌های مختلف کاربرد دارند اما استحکام‌بخش‌های معدنی برای سنگ‌ها با خصوصیات مشخصی تجویز شده‌اند.


Article's English abstract:

In Iran, stone archaeology sites such Persepolis, Pasargadae, and Kangavar (Anahita temple) are exposure to decay and degradation in the absence of scientific investigation. One of the main functions in conservation of historical artifacts is consolidation. Consolidation treatments due to of their potential to cause undesirable effects and irrevocability are the most at risk in conservation measures. Identifying and selecting consolidate materials-generally known as coating materials in industry- affect seriously on the survival rate. If being no knowledge in the field of materials and their side effect, it is sometimes possible harmful effects outweigh the benefits. As for the lack of efficient Farsi (Persian) data in the context of stone conservation materials as well as absence of knowledge in consolidation mechanisms and their advantage and disadvantage, it is necessary to describe the consolidation materials that are used and recommended. Their performance and characteristics are described, in order to be helpful to the conservation objectives. The chemical natures of consolidations are categorized in: organic, inorganic, and organic-inorganic. Organic consolidations such as Ethyl Silicate are commonly used for all kind of stone but inorganic consolidations are prescribed for the stone with the specified characteristics.


کلید واژگان:
حفاظت سنگ، مواد پوشش‌دهنده، مواد استحکام‌بخش، استحکام‌بخش‌های آلی، معدنی و آلی- معدنی.

English Keywords:
Stone conservation, Coating materials, Consolidation materials, Organic consolidation, Inorganic consolidation, Organic-inorganic consolidation

منابع:
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