عنوان مقاله [English]
Study of lights and colors is being considered as an important tool to know more about universe and the rules governing it. The aim of the present study is to review the human findings in this area and the scientific achievements of understanding and analysis of cosmos lights. The survey results show that nuclear reactions in the heart of stars as well as their resulting temperature are the most influential factors on the color of stars. So, the star magnitude, as the main indicator for star luminosity evaluation, is directly dependent to this temperature. On the other hand, factors such as the distance between Earth and the star and the light emitting surface area both affect our assessment of the star brightness. On the contrary, star temperature measurement could be implemented by using color characteristics of stars in addition to well-known spectroscopy methods. Star color index, defined as difference between star magnitude in two definite limits of light spectrum (in visible area and its nearby) and also color-color and color-magnitude diagrams can help astronomers to find out more regarding to star specifications like star temperature. The light is changed in its path toward earth, which affects the color of star. Inter stellar reddening, red shift and gravitational red shift are some of the most important changes of stars, and their analysis provides valuable information to the astrophysicists. Stars are not the only mass in this wide universe; the major part of the universe is contained of an invisible mass called dark matter which its essence is still unknown to scientists. Color of planets, considering planet as a light reflector mass, is a function of surface of planet, albedo and its characteristics and atmosphere. Analysis of color specification of planets leads to better understanding of planets, containing their structure and nature.