چاپ زیستی سه بعدی و جوهرهای زیستی طبیعی مورد استفاده: مفاهیم و کاربردها

نوع مقاله : مقاله مروری

نویسندگان

1 دانشجوی دکترا، گروه پژوهشی علوم و فناوری چاپ، پژوهشگاه رنگ

2 دانشیار، گروه پژوهشی علوم و فناوری چاپ، پژوهشگاه رنگ

3 استادیار، دانشکده مهندسی شیمی و نفت، دانشگاه صنعتی شریف

چکیده

در حال حاضر، چاپ زیستی سه‌بعدی به عنوان یک روش ساخت افزایشی برای تولید سازه‌های سه‌بعدی با هندسه‌ی دلخواه، به طور گسترده در کاربردهای مهندسی بافت و غربالگری دارو به کار گرفته می‌شود. چاپ زیستی سه‌بعدی ساخت بافت‌های زنده را با استفاده از چاپ تجمعات سلولی و یا سلول‌های گنجانده شده در زیست مواد ممکن می‌سازد که به تمامی آن‌ها جوهر زیستی گفته می‌شود. مطالعات روی تهیه جوهرهای زیستی نوین با قابلیت چاپ مناسب، زیست‌سازگاری بالا و خواص مکانیکی مشابه بافت هدف پیش‌شرطی اساسی به منظور پیشبرد کاربرد چاپ زیستی در طب ترمیمی است. تنها دسته‌ای از مواد که توانایی فراهم کردن محیطی مشابه بدن انسان را داشته و سلول‌ها توانایی زنده ماندن حین فرآیند گنجانده شدن درون آن‌ها دارند، هیدروژل‌ها هستند. از میان دو دسته‌ی هیدروژل‌های طبیعی و سنتزی بکارگرفته شده به عنوان جوهرهای زیستی، مواد طبیعی به‌دلیل زیست‌سازگاری بهتر، خطر رد ایمنی کمتر، مشابهت بیشتر به بافت‌های بدن و همچنین امکان اصلاح در آزمایشگاه و ترکیب با سایر مواد به منظور بهینه‌سازی خواص، کاربرد بسیار گسترده‌تری را نسبت به جوهرهای زیستی سنتزی پیدا کرده‌اند. در این مقاله، ابتدا مروری بر فناوری چاپ زیستی سه‌بعدی و انواع روش‌های تهیه، اعمال و کاربرد آن ارائه شده است. سپس، زیست‌مواد بکار رفته به عنوان جوهرهای زیستی و سازوکارهای شبکه‌ای شدن آن‌ها بررسی می‌شود. در انتها نیز خلاصه‌ای از مطالعات صورت گرفته روی برخی از پرکاربردترین جوهرهای زیستی طبیعی (شامل: کلاژن، ژلاتین، ابریشم، آلژینات، اسید هیالورونیک، کیتوسان و بستر خارج سلولی) گزارش شده است. نتایج تحقیقات نشان می‌دهد که بازساخت اعضای بدن با استفاده از چاپ زیستی نیازمند قرارگیری دقیق سلول‌های مشخص، مواد و عوامل زیست‌فعال به منظور القای تشکیل بافت عملکردی است. برآوردن این نیازها برای بافت‌های پیچیده‌تر، لزوم تهیه جوهرهای زیستی مختص بافت با خواص زیستی و مکانیکی قابل تنظیم را پررنگ‌تر می‌کند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

3D Bioprinting and Natural Bioinks: Principles and Applications

نویسندگان [English]

  • Amirhossein Jalali Kandeloos 1
  • Saeed Bastani 2
  • Shohreh Mashayekhan 3
1 Department of Printing Science and Technology, Institute for Color and Technology
2 Department of Printing Science and Technology, Institute for Color and Technology
3 Department of Chemical & Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology
چکیده [English]

Currently, 3D bioprinting as an additive manufacturing technique for building 3D constructs with desired geometries is broadly employed in tissue engineering and drug screening applications. Bioprinting enables the fabrication of living tissues using cell aggregates or cells encapsulated in biomaterials—all of which can be referred to as bioink. Research on novel bioinks with appropriate printability, biocompatibility, and mechanical properties akin to the target tissue is an essential prerequisite toward advancing 3D bioprinting applications in regenerative medicine. The only class of materials capable of providing an environment similar to the human body and maintaining cell viability during encapsulation is hydrogels. Among the two categories of natural and synthetic hydrogels employed as bioinks, natural materials are much more widely used than synthetic ones due to their better biocompatibility, lower risk of immune rejection, more similarity to native tissues, and the possibility of laboratory modification and combination with other materials to obtain optimal properties. In this article, first, a review of 3D bioprinting technology and its defined modalities is presented. Next, bioink biomaterials and their cross-linking mechanism are discussed. Finally, a summary of studies on some of the most widely used natural bioinks (including collagen, gelatin, silk, alginate, hyaluronic acid, chitosan and extracellular matrix) is reported. Research results indicate that recreating organs using 3D bioprinting necessitates precise placement of specific cells, materials, and bioactive factors to induce functional tissue formation. Attempting to meet these requirements for more complex tissues highlights the need for more tissue-specific, biologically and mechanically tunable bioinks.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • 3D bioprinting
  • Bioink
  • Natural hydrogels
  • Photo-polymerization
  • Tissue engineering
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